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GIS is computer-based mapping and spatial analysis. Excavations can be planned using electronic surveying equipment and entered into a GIS software package on the computer. GIS can be used to keep track of excavation progress and to understand the different phases of activity on site. GIS can also be used to understand the relationship between an archaeological site and its environment – vegetation, soils, water sources, etc., as well as the relationships between sites – for instance between a pa site and the smaller occupation and midden sites around it. Information on the location of sites and features can be used as a tool to assist planning in a development.

We have wide-ranging training and experience in using GIS and computer mapping techniques and electronic surveying. Many investigations that we undertake have a GIS component to them.


Detail of the excavation plan of the Wanganui Hotel: rubbish pits, postholes and fireplace at top left.